Tuesday, December 1, 2009

just to share..

sometimes we tend to be influenced by others in terms of the use of language.there're people esp malays,if they speak english,they tend to be like english men.however,the very basic part of the language itself,which is grammar,is not given full i would like to share some of the abbreviations such as LOL that we always use,and i hope we can use it (if we want) correctly.i'm also learning,so let's look at it :)

LOL, an abbreviation for laughing out loud or laugh out loud, is a common element of Internet slang. It was used historically on Usenet but is now widespread in other forms of computer-mediated communication, and even face-to-face communication. It is one of many initialisms for expressing bodily reactions, in particular laughter, as text, including initialisms for more emphatic expressions of laughter such as LMAO ("laughing my ass off"), ROTFL or ROFL ("roll(ing) on the floor laughing"), and BWL ("bursting with laughter"), above which there is "no greater compliment" according to technology columnist Larry Magid. Other unrelated expansions include the now mostly historical "lots of luck" or "lots of love" used in letter-writing.

These initialisms of this term are controversial, and several authors recommend against their use, either in general or in specific contexts such as business communications.


Laccetti (professor of humanities at Stevens Institute of Technology) and Molsk, in their essay entitled The Lost Art of Writing,are critical of the acronyms, predicting reduced chances of employment for students who use such acronyms, stating that, "Unfortunately for these students, their bosses will not be 'lol' when they read a report that lacks proper punctuation and grammar, has numerous misspellings, various made-up words, and silly acronyms." Fondiller and Nerone in their style manual assert that "professional or business communication should never be careless or poorly constructed" whether one is writing an electronic mail message or an article for publication, and warn against the use of smileys and these abbreviations, stating that they are "no more than e-mail slang and have no place in business communication".

Yunker and Barry in a study of online courses and how they can be improved through podcasting have found that these acronyms, and emoticons as well, are "often misunderstood" by students and are "difficult to decipher" unless their meanings are explained in advance. They single out the example of "ROFL" as not obviously being the abbreviation of "rolling on the floor laughing" (emphasis added). Haig singles out LOL as one of the three most popular initialisms in Internet slang, alongside BFN ("bye for now") and IMHO ("in my humble opinion"). He describes these acronyms, and the various initialisms of Internet slang in general, as convenient, but warns that "as ever more obscure acronyms emerge they can also be rather confusing". Bidgoli likewise states that these initialisms "save keystrokes for the sender but [...] might make comprehension of the message more difficult for the receiver" and that "sang may hold different meanings and lead to misunderstandings especially in international settings"; he advises that they be used "only when you are sure that the other person knows the meaning".

Shortis observes that ROTFL is a means of "annotating text with stage directions". Hueng, in discussing these acronyms in the context of performative utterances, points out the difference between telling someone that one is laughing out loud and actually laughing out loud: "The latter response is a straightforward action. The former is a self-reflexive representation of an action: I not only do something but also show you that I am doing it. Or indeed, I may not actually laugh out loud but may use the locution 'LOL' to communicate my appreciation of your attempt at humor."

David Crystal notes that use of LOL is not necessarily genuine,just as the use of smiley faces or grins is not necessarily genuine, posing the rhetorical question "How many people are actually 'laughing out loud' when they send LOL?". Franzini concurs, stating that there is as yet no research that has determined the percentage of people who are actually laughing out loud when they write "LOL".

Victoria Clarke, in her analysis of telnet talkers, states that capitalization is important when people write "LOL", and that "a user who types LOL may well be laughing louder than one who types lol", and opines that "these standard expressions of laughter are losing force through overuse". Egan describes LOL, ROTFL, and other initialisms as helpful as long as they are not overused. He recommends against their use in business correspondence because the recipient may not be aware of their meanings, and because in general neither they nor emoticons are (in his view) appropriate in such correspondence. June Hines Moore shares that view. So, too, does Lindsell-Roberts,who gives the same advice of not using them in business correspondence, "or you won't be LOL".
Spread from written to spoken communication

LOL, ROFL, and other initialisms have crossed from computer-mediated communication to face-to-face communication. Teenagers now sometimes use them in spoken communication as well as in written, with ROFL (pronounced /ˈroʊfəl/ or /ˈrɒfəl/) and LOL (pronounced /ˈloʊl/, /ˈlɒl/, or /ˌɛloʊˈɛl/), for example. David Crystal—likening the introduction of LOL, ROFL, and others into spoken language in magnitude to the revolution of Johannes Gutenberg's invention of movable type in the 15th century—states that this is "a brand new variety of language evolving", invented by young people within five years, that "extend[s] the range of the language, the expressiveness [and] the richness of the language". Commentators[who?] disagree, saying that these new words, being abbreviations for existing, long-used, phrases, don't "enrich" anything; they just shorten it.

Geoffrey K. Pullum points out that even if interjections such as LOL and ROTFL were to become very common in spoken English, their "total effect on language" would be "utterly trivial".

Conversely, a 2003 study of college students by Naomi Baron found that the use of these initialisms in computer-mediated communication (CMC), specifically in instant messaging, was actually lower than she had expected. The students "used few abbreviations, acronyms, and emoticons". The spelling was "reasonably good" and contractions were "not ubiquitous". Out of 2,185 transmissions, there were 90 initialisms in total, only 31 CMC-style abbreviations, and 49 emoticons. Out of the 90 initialisms, 76 were occurrences of LOL.

Sunday, June 14, 2009

To fight global warming, just paint your roof white!

Some people believe that nuclear power is the answer to climate change, others have proposed green technologies such as wind or solar power, but Barack Obama’s top man on global warming has suggested something far simpler – painting your roof white.

Steven Chu, the US Secretary of Energy and a Nobel prize-winning scientist, said recently that making roofs and pavements white or light-coloured would help to reduce global warming by both conserving energy and reflecting sunlight back into space.

It would, he said, be the equivalent of taking all the cars in the world off the road for 11 years.

Speaking in London prior to a meeting of some of the world’s best minds on how to combat climate change, Dr Chu said the simple act of painting roofs white could have a dramatic impact on the amount of energy used to keep buildings comfortable, as well as directly offsetting global warming by increasing the reflectivity of the Earth.

“If that building is air-conditioned, it’s going to be a lot cooler, it can use 10 or 15 per cent less electricity,” he said.

“You also do something in that you change the albedo (reflectivity) of the Earth – you make it more reflective. So the sunlight comes down and it actually goes back up – there is no greenhouse effect,” Dr Chu said.

When sunlight is reflected off a white or light-coloured surface much of that light will pass through the atmosphere and back into space, unlike the infrared radiation emitted from the Earth’s warmed-up surface, which is blocked by greenhouse gases and causes global warming.

“What we’re doing is that, as we put in more greenhouse gases, we’re putting in more insulation for infrared light. So if you make white roofs and the sunlight comes in, it goes right through that [insulation],” said Dr Chu.

The principle could also be extended to cars where white or “cool colours” designed to reflect light and radiation could make vehicles more energy efficient in summer. “If all vehicles were light-coloured, there could be considerable savings because then you can downsize the air conditioning... and downsizing the air conditioner means more efficient air conditioning and a considerable reduction in energy,” he said.

Asked about whether the US administration has any plans to manipulate the climate artificially using large-scale geo-engineering programmes, Dr Chu said there were no such plans “at this time”.

But painting surfaces white is one geo-engineering proposal that he is taking seriously.

“Now you smile, but if you look at all the buildings and make all the roofs white, and if you make the pavement a more concrete-type of colour than a black-type of colour, and you do this uniformly... It’s the equivalent of reducing the carbon emissions due to all the cars in the world by 11 years,” he said.

“It’s like you’ve just taken them off the road for 11 years. It’s actually geo-engineering.”

The idea would even work in countries with temperate climates, such as Britain, because white-coloured roofs would help to reflect the radiated heat from homes and offices back into the building during winter months, said Dr Chu.

One unresolved issue concerns the aesthetic considerations of making sloping roofs white. But with flat roofs that are not visible from the street, there should be no objection to painting them white, he said

Dr Chu is one of 20 Nobel prize-winning scientists attending a meeting on climate change at the Royal Society and St James’s Palace organised by Cambridge University. He said energy efficiency will be the most immediate way of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.

The white revolution: How it would work

The idea of painting surfaces white to conserve energy is being actively pursued by the US. Earlier this month, Barack Obama’s chief scientific adviser, John Holdren, received a scientific memorandum on the subject.

Scientists estimate that making roofs and pavements white or more light-coloured would counter global warming with “negative radiative forcing” – reflecting sunlight back into space. They said that retrofitting urban roofs and pavements in tropical and temperate regions with solar-reflective materials would offset about 44 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide.

The scientists said it would lower the cost of air conditioning, making buildings more comfortable and mitigate the “urban heat island” effect caused by the concentration of concrete surfaces in cities.

Thursday, May 28, 2009

Seni Cula Si Manjakini

Mungkin ramai yang tak pernah dengar nama silat ni. silat ni berasal dari perak, dan namanya pun diambil dari pedang diraja sultan perak perak,yang merupakan salah satu daripada alat kebesaran sultan perak iaitu pedang cura si manjakini. pedang ni dulu digunakan oleh parameswara dan diwariskan turun temurun sehingga sekarang berada dalam simpanan sultan perak. selain pedang ni,keris taming sari juga merupakan salah satu alat kebesaran sultan perak yang juga dalam simpanan baginda tuanku sultan. usia silat ni tidak terlalu lama, agak baru iaitu kalau tak silap lebih kurang 10tahun. pengasas silat ni ataupun guru utamanya ialah Mohd Khan atau lebih dikenali sebagai 'abang khan', seorang guru silat yang berbakat besar dan masyhur dikalangan pengamal seni beladiri khususnya silat melayu. beliau turut terlibat dalam mengarah dan berlakon dalam cerita2 silat melayu antaranya cerita 'pendekar semutar hitam' yang mana beliau melakonkan dua watak dalam cerita tersebut.

Friday, May 22, 2009

Zambry is MB, rules court

The Court of Appeal today returned a unanimous decision that BN’s Datuk Zambry Abd Kadir is the rightful Perak mentri besar, ruling that his Pakatan Rakyat rival Datuk Seri Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin had ceased to command the majority in the Perak state assembly. The appellate court allows an appeal by BN's Zambry to reverse a High Court decision that declared Nizar as the rightful menteri besar.

The judges also ruled that the Sultan was right in appointing Zambry the MB and that there was no need for a vote of no confidence to be brought in the House against Nizar.

The three Justices Md Raus Shariff, Zainun Ali and Ahmad Maarop delivered judgment after hearing submissions from both parties yesterday.

However, the Court of Appeal decision is not expected to bring an end to the crisis in Perak as the parties can still appeal to the Federal Court,which is the highest court in Malaysia.

Nizar's counsel Sulaiman Abdullah said he would be filing an appeal. When asked if he was shocked with judgment, Sulaiman said : "We have extraordinary judges with extraordinary ability."

Let's see what are the steps will be taken by Zambry after he received this victory. Will he ask for the royal consent to dissolve the state assembly to have the state fresh election? Even though from the beginning when his appeal was accepted, Nizar's lawyers argued why did Zambry get the special treatment,only less than 24 hours his appeal was accepted but Nizar's appeal was to be considered about a week.

Well, nothing much to say at this time. But i'm sure that this decision will not stop the political turmoil in Perak unless the people are given their right to choose who they want as the mentri besar.